FACTS & TIPS

Rats

The brown rat is the most common species we have in Sweden. The body measures 25 cm with the tail included, the tail itself is about 17-20 cm. At the age of 2 months it becomes mature and a female can get 3-6 litters a year with 6-12 pups each. Normally the pregnancy lasts for 24-25 days. An experiment with one female and one male rat turned out 800 pups in only one year. Rats are omnivores but prefer fat products. In the wild, a rat becomes approximately 6 months old. They live in the ground, buildings or in sewage systems. Rats are often looking for properties and a crack measuring 13 mm is enough for them to get in. They are talented climbers and can jump up to 1.5 m. They may also spread diseases such as zoonosis.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep pipe transit seal sealed
  • Floor drains should have proper lids
  • Doors must be intact
  • Outer walls must be intact without cracks, if not, we can help you to seal them
  • Keep clean and tidy next to rubbish bins
  • Avoid vegetation close to properties
  • Don't feed birds where you want to keep rats away
  • Keep clean and tidy both inside and outside your house

Suitable treatments: mechanical/automatic traps. Do you have problem with rats and need help? Please click here.

Mice

In Sweden the house mouse and field mouse are the most common. The body (including the tail) usually measures 8-9 cm. A whole with a diameter of 5 mm is enough for a mouse to get in. A mouse becomes mature after only 35 days. A female mouse gets 4-6 litters a year with up to 6 pups in each. Under good circumstances a new litter may be born each 50th day. A female is pregnant for 18-21 days and fertile for approximately one year. It is an omnivore but prefers fruits, seeds, flour and grain products. It often gets in to properties via panel and cracks. House mice stay inside houses all year round while field mice get in during autumn.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep pipe transit seal sealed
  • Doors must be intact
  • Floor drains should have proper lids
  • Outer walls must be intact without cracks, if not, we can help you to seal them
  • Keep clean and tidy next to rubbish bins
  • Avoid vegetation close to properties
  • Don't feed birds where you want to keep mice away
  • Keep clean and tidy both inside and outside your house

Suitable treatments: mechanical/automatic traps or pens. Do you have problem with mice and need help? Click here.

Mice

In Sweden the house mouse and field mouse are the most common. The body (including the tail) usually measures 8-9 cm. A whole with a diameter of 5 mm is enough for a mouse to get in. A mouse becomes mature after only 35 days. A female mouse gets 4-6 litters a year with up to 6 pups in each. Under good circumstances a new litter may be born each 50th day. A female is pregnant for 18-21 days and fertile for approximately one year. It is an omnivore but prefers fruits, seeds, flour and grain products. It often gets in to properties via panel and cracks. House mice stay inside houses all year round while field mice get in during autumn.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep pipe transit seal sealed
  • Doors must be intact
  • Floor drains should have proper lids
  • Outer walls must be intact without cracks, if not, we can help you to seal them
  • Keep clean and tidy next to rubbish bins
  • Avoid vegetation close to properties
  • Don't feed birds where you want to keep mice away
  • Keep clean and tidy both inside and outside your house

Suitable treatments: mechanical/automatic traps or pens. Do you have problem with mice and need help? Click here.

Bed Bugs

As an adult the body of a bed bug measures 4-5 mm and the colour is yellow, red or dark brown but as nymph it is transparent. With its flat body it easily squeezes into small cracks. Normally the life time of a bed bug is 6-9 months but in a laboratory it can reach 18 months. It is a bloodsucking parasite that is shy and active by night. Its capacity to survive is magnificent, it may lay dormant for up to 18 months without food. It's only when a human comes near and it feels the warmth from the body it gets attracted and starts to look for blood. Immediately after it has fed it will look for a mate. A female lays 2-5 eggs a day and it takes approximately 7-20 days before they hatch. Under one lifetime a female can deliver 200-500 eggs. Bed bugs are normally spread through our belongings. They leave traces as black spots, blood stains and shell pieces.

How to avoid them:

  • Use plastic or metallic suitcases
  • When staying at hotel, look for indications of bed bugs
  • Place suitcases as far away from the hotel bed as possible
  • Don't unpack suitcases during the trip, wait until you get home
  • Back home after your journey, wash as much as possible in at least 60 degrees
  • Inspect your second-hand-bargains carefully

Suitable treatments: physical treatment e.g. siliceous, vacuum cleaning, heat, steam and deep freezing. Have you seen traces of bed bugs? Please contact us here for help.

Cockroaches

After only 2-4 months a cockroach is considered an adult. The females deliver eggs in sets of 36 that hatch within 4-6 weeks. They are difficult to discover since they are active by night but larger infestations are possible to be seen at daytime. They spread through pipe transit seals and leave traces in the form of small, black spots. Hepatitis B and salmonella are examples of diseases they may spread.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep pipe transit seal sealed
  • Keep clean and tidy both inside your house
  • Keep clean and tidy next to rubbish bins
  • Keep clean underneath kitchen counter tops

Suitable treatments: glue traps, cold, siliceous and chemical treatments. Do you have problem with cockroaches? Please contact us here for help.

Cockroaches

After only 2-4 months a cockroach is considered an adult. The females deliver eggs in sets of 36 that hatch within 4-6 weeks. They are difficult to discover since they are active by night but larger infestations are possible to be seen at daytime. They spread through pipe transit seals and leave traces in the form of small, black spots. Hepatitis B and salmonella are examples of diseases they may spread.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep pipe transit seal sealed
  • Keep clean and tidy both inside your house
  • Keep clean and tidy next to rubbish bins
  • Keep clean underneath kitchen counter tops

Suitable treatments: glue traps, cold, siliceous and chemical treatments. Do you have problem with cockroaches? Please contact us here for help.

Wasps

Most common are ordinary wasps, German wasps, red wasps, median wasps and European hornets. The amount of wasps in a nest may vary but can be up to thousands in each hive. Their hives consist of chewed wood as they find in logs, trees or panel etc. but they also nest in the ground. In the autumn all wasps die except the queen and the wasp's nest only survives one summer. Wasps are pollinators and should therefore not be combated unnecessarily.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep clean and tidy next to rubbish bins
  • Place screens on open windows
  • Cover valves with mosquito net to prevent wasps to get in and nest, we can help you with this
  • Place wasp traps in problematic areas, these you can order from us

Suitable treatments: removal of wasp's nest and chemical treatments. Do you have problem with wasps and need help? Please click here.

Black Ants

This species prefers damp areas which explains why they are commonly seen on balconies. They nest in damp timber and each nest has a queen. To find food one of the ants leaves traces for the rest to follow. The main food consists of excrement from aphids but even sap, pollen and insects.

How to avoid them:

  • Clean properly after consuming sweet food
  • Avoid vegetation close to properties
  • Outer walls must be intact without cracks, if not, we can help you to seal them
  • Clean ant traces

Suitable treatments: placement of ant bait stations (these you can order here) and chemical treatments.

Black Ants

This species prefers damp areas which explains why they are commonly seen on balconies. They nest in damp timber and each nest has a queen. To find food one of the ants leaves traces for the rest to follow. The main food consists of excrement from aphids but even sap, pollen and insects.

How to avoid them:

  • Clean properly after consuming sweet food
  • Avoid vegetation close to properties
  • Outer walls must be intact without cracks, if not, we can help you to seal them
  • Clean ant traces

Suitable treatments: placement of ant bait stations (these you can order here) and chemical treatments.

Pharaoh Ants

Pharaoh ants are golden and can be hard to discover as they are very small, only 1.5-2 mm. They like warm places and can therefore be found in the kitchen or bathroom close to electronic devices. Apart from the black ant several of the Pharaoh Ant's nests are connected and controlled by the same queen, this is why it can be difficult to combat this species. They spread via stores, working places and journeys abroad. Pharaoh ants like sweet food, cheese products, meat products and dead insects.

How to avoid them:

  • Clean properly after consuming sweet food
  • Clean ant traces

Suitable treatments: placement of ant bait stations (these you can order here) and chemical treatments.

Carpet Beetles

Beetles are a big family of insects and carpet beetles belongs to the ordinary species. They attack wool, fur, bones and grain products. The larva likes dark places like closets and among clothes. They are common in sub floors or parquet flooring in older houses. Adult carpet beetles prefer windows.

How to avoid them:

  • Clean closets and bureaus regularly
  • Vacuum clean floor moldings, floor cracks and similar regularly
  • Remove old wasp's nest

Suitable treatments: cleaning and in special cases chemical treatment. 

Carpet Beetles

Beetles are a big family of insects and carpet beetles belongs to the ordinary species. They attack wool, fur, bones and grain products. The larva likes dark places like closets and among clothes. They are common in sub floors or parquet flooring in older houses. Adult carpet beetles prefer windows.

How to avoid them:

  • Clean closets and bureaus regularly
  • Vacuum clean floor moldings, floor cracks and similar regularly
  • Remove old wasp's nest

Suitable treatments: cleaning and in special cases chemical treatment. 

 

 

 

 

Larder Beetle

The larder beetle is a scavenger and is often found in birds’ nests and dead animals but even in kitchen cupboards, animal feed and ventilation. A female lays her eggs in dead animals and the larva are dark brown and measure 12-16 mm.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep your kitchen free from fat
  • Remove old wasp's nest and bird's nest

Suitable treatments: cleaning and in special cases chemical treatment.

Silverfish

The ordinary silverfish is shy and has no wings. It likes warm and humid places like kitchens and bathrooms and hides in cracks in our houses. Their feed consists of soap, fat, cellulose, bread, flour and also paper. As nymph it is 2 mm long and white and can live 2-4 years. Apart from the ordinary silverfish the long-sprouted silverfish likes dry places. Another species is the firebrat that has similar appearance as the ordinary silverfish but prefers higher temperatures and can survive in dry places.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep as clean as possible in the bathroom, the larder and along floor moldings
  • Vacuum clean floor moldings, floor cracks and similar regularly
  • Rather vacuum clean than wet wipe since silverfishes likes dampness

Suitable treatments: silverfish traps (these you can order from us). Many silverfish at one spot may indicate dampness, hire a professional if you feel unsure, book here.

Silverfish

The ordinary silverfish is shy and has no wings. It likes warm and humid places like kitchens and bathrooms and hides in cracks in our houses. Their feed consists of soap, fat, cellulose, bread, flour and also paper. As nymph it is 2 mm long and white and can live 2-4 years. Apart from the ordinary silverfish the long-sprouted silverfish likes dry places. Another species is the firebrat that has similar appearance as the ordinary silverfish but prefers higher temperatures and can survive in dry places.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep as clean as possible in the bathroom, the larder and along floor moldings
  • Vacuum clean floor moldings, floor cracks and similar regularly
  • Rather vacuum clean than wet wipe since silverfishes likes dampness

Suitable treatments: silverfish traps (these you can order from us). Many silverfish at one spot may indicate dampness, hire a professional if you feel unsure, book here.

Clothes Moth

This species is yellow or grey and have a 12-14 mm wingspan. A female can lay up to 100 eggs that hatch in only a few days. The development from egg to adult vary from one month up to one year depending on what temperature it is surrounded by. The adults do not damage materials, the larva however attack textiles. They prefer feathers, hair and fur.

How to avoid them:

  • Always wash clothes and textiles before storing them
  • Vacuum closets regularly
  • Keep an eye on garments and carpets you seldom use

Suitable treatments: cleaning textiles.

Mediterranean Flour Moth

The larva is greyish yellow and has black circles and dots. The head is dark brown and the body measures 12-25 mm. A female can lay up to 700 eggs and the development is dependent on temperature. The main feed consists of flour, bread, pasta and grain. Moth larvae and adults are often found in the ceiling.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep clean in the larder
  • Reaseal flour bags after use

Suitable treatments: cleaning and chemical treatment.

Mediterranean Flour Moth

The larva is greyish yellow and has black circles and dots. The head is dark brown and the body measures 12-25 mm. A female can lay up to 700 eggs and the development is dependent on temperature. The main feed consists of flour, bread, pasta and grain. Moth larvae and adults are often found in the ceiling.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep clean in the larder
  • Reaseal flour bags after use

Suitable treatments: cleaning and chemical treatment.

 

 

 

 

Flour Beetles

Flour beetles like grain products and are often found in empty warehouses where they eat food waste from flour, bread, beans, pasta, spices and cacao in cracks. They prefer warm climate around 30 degrees. They attack food and make it mold and smell bad.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep clean in the larder
  • Reseal flour bags after use
  • Store dry goods in temperatures below 20 degrees

Suitable treatments: cleaning and in special cases chemical treatment.

Sawtoothed Grain Beetles

They are deep red and measure approximately 2.5-3.5 mm. On each side of the neck it has 6 small tags. A female can lay hundreds of eggs during her lifetime. They grow fast in temperatures from 20-35 degrees, below 18 degrees the development stops. The process from egg to adult takes 3 months at 20 degrees but only 3 weeks at 35 degrees. They prefer grain and fat products.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep clean in the larder
  • Reseal flour bags after use
  • Store dry goods in temperatures below 18 degrees

Suitable treatments: cleaning and chemical treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sawtoothed Grain Beetles

They are deep red and measure approximately 2.5-3.5 mm. On each side of the neck it has 6 small tags. A female can lay hundreds of eggs during her lifetime. They grow fast in temperatures from 20-35 degrees, below 18 degrees the development stops. The process from egg to adult takes 3 months at 20 degrees but only 3 weeks at 35 degrees. They prefer grain and fat products.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep clean in the larder
  • Reseal flour bags after use
  • Store dry goods in temperatures below 18 degrees

Suitable treatments: cleaning and chemical treatment.

Rice Weevil

Their head look like a trunk and they are brown, almost black with red spots on their wings. The female lays her eggs in rice from which the larva later on feeds off of. They also eat grain. Rice weevils comes to Sweden by transports and thereafter establish in larders and packages with rice. They are dependent of heat and will therefore not survive in cold places.

How to avoid them:

  • Store rice and grain in cool locations

Suitable treatments: cleaning and chemical treatment.

Woodboring Beetles

Most common in the southern parts of Sweden. They are also found on the west coast. The colour of the body is greyish brown with two light stripes on the wings. It's mostly the warmer places in the house that gets infested like the ceiling or southern outer walls and eggs can be found in cracks. They attack spruce but never leafy trees. In temperatures between 25-28 degrees the caterpillars keep very active, below 12 degrees there is no activity.

How to avoid them:

  • Professional inspection

Suitable treatments: chemical treatment or gassing. Do you have problem with woodboring beetles and need help? Pleas click here.

Woodboring Beetles

Most common in the southern parts of Sweden. They are also found on the west coast. The colour of the body is greyish brown with two light stripes on the wings. It's mostly the warmer places in the house that gets infested like the ceiling or southern outer walls and eggs can be found in cracks. They attack spruce but never leafy trees. In temperatures between 25-28 degrees the caterpillars keep very active, below 12 degrees there is no activity.

How to avoid them:

  • Professional inspection

Suitable treatments: chemical treatment or gassing. Do you have problem with woodboring beetles and need help? Pleas click here.

 

 

 

 

Carpenter Ant

The carpenter ant is the largest ant in Europe whereof two species exist in Sweden. It's black with deep red middle body. The queen sets up a nest where she gives birth to a group of workers that can reach as many as 3000 individuals. They prefer having their colonies in damp trees, trunks and buildings. The carpenter ant is an omnivore but prefer sweet sap and insects.

How to avoid them:

  • Avoid wood stocks and vegetation close to properties

Suitable treatments: removal of nests and chemical treatment.

Common Furniture Beetles

Most common in the southern and the middle parts of Sweden. The body is dark brown with dotted wings. They primarily attack healthy wood indoors. A female lays 20-40 eggs in cracks which requires a humidity of 60-70 percent to be able to develop, the process may take up to 3 years. It is often found in cowsheds or basements where it is chilly or only warm certain times of the year. The common furniture beetle attacks both leafy trees and pine trees as well as wooden furniture.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep low humidity
  • Properties that are not in use all year round should keep a temperature of at least 14 degrees.
  • Avoid storing wooden items in chilly places

Suitable treatments: place infested items in warm places, deep freeze smaller items.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Furniture Beetles

Most common in the southern and the middle parts of Sweden. The body is dark brown with dotted wings. They primarily attack healthy wood indoors. A female lays 20-40 eggs in cracks which requires a humidity of 60-70 percent to be able to develop, the process may take up to 3 years. It is often found in cowsheds or basements where it is chilly or only warm certain times of the year. The common furniture beetle attacks both leafy trees and pine trees as well as wooden furniture.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep low humidity
  • Properties that are not in use all year round should keep a temperature of at least 14 degrees.
  • Avoid storing wooden items in chilly places

Suitable treatments: place infested items in warm places, deep freeze smaller items.

Hadrobregmus Pertinax

This species is common in the whole country of Sweden. It's black with yellow hair on the back corners of the neck. The hadrobregmus pertinax only attacks damp wood.

How to avoid them:

  • Keep wood dry
  • Prevent dampness
  • Change damaged wood

Suitable treatments: change damaged wood and apply suitable product to protect. Do you need help to remediate damages? Please click here.

 

 

 

 

Staphylococcus Aureus

Occurrence: humans and warm-blooded animals, ear, nose and throat. Infected cuticle. Food handled by contaminated hands like salad, peeled boiled eggs and pizza. Relatively short course of disease 1-3 days.

Incubation period 1-6 hours.

Symptoms: vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea.

Reason for outbreaks: food contaminated by dirty hands and stored at too high of a temperature. The bacteria can produce toxins that causes illness when eaten. Because cooking cannot destroy these toxins preventing bacteria growth is critical.

Prevention: good hand hygiene and proper refrigeration

Bacillus Cereus

Occurrence: in soil and dust. Type 1, in meat and vegetable dishes. Type 2 common in rice dishes.

Incubation period: type 1: 6-24 hours, type 2: a few hours.

Symptoms: type 1; mainly stomach pains and diarrhea up to half a day. Type 2; mostly vomiting and diarrhea that lasts for 6-24 hours.

Causes of outbreaks: slow cooling of food that is not consumed quickly enough.

Prevention: rapid cooling, adequate reheating, proper refrigeration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bacillus Cereus

Occurrence: in soil and dust. Type 1, in meat and vegetable dishes. Type 2 common in rice dishes.

Incubation period: type 1: 6-24 hours, type 2: a few hours.

Symptoms: type 1; mainly stomach pains and diarrhea up to half a day. Type 2; mostly vomiting and diarrhea that lasts for 6-24 hours.

Causes of outbreaks: slow cooling of food that is not consumed quickly enough.

Prevention: rapid cooling, adequate reheating, proper refrigeration.

 

 

 

 

Clostridium Perfringens

Occurrence: in soil and dust, can contaminate food. Outbreaks caused by meat stews, poached fish and steaks.

Incubation time: 6-24hrs

Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, severe diarrhea. There have been deaths in weakened people.

Causes of outbreaks: slow cooling of food that is not consumed quickly enough.

Prevention: rapid cooling, proper storage, properly heating before serving.

Clostridium Botulinum

Occurrence: Generally in nature, in the bottom sludge in lakes and seas. Spore-forming bacteria, anaerobic. It can be found in fish products such as pickled herring and smoked fish in oil. It has also been found in other types of marinades such as olives, garlic and tomato pesto. If the bacteria is allowed to grow it forms a nerve poison which can lead to death if not treated in time.

Incubation: a few hours to several days, the symptoms usually appear after 12-36 hours.

Symptoms: initial; nausea and vomiting, followed by neurological symptoms; weakness, double vision, difficulty speaking and swallowing.

Reason for outbreak: the bacteria is inhibited by acid, salt and low temperature. If you are careless with the amount of vinegar and salt and don’t store the food at low temperature, the bacteria grows and there is a risk that the food becomes toxic.

Prevention: follow the recipes carefully when pickling. Smoked fish should not be stored above +4 °C for more than three weeks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clostridium Botulinum

Occurrence: Generally in nature, in the bottom sludge in lakes and seas. Spore-forming bacteria, anaerobic. It can be found in fish products such as pickled herring and smoked fish in oil. It has also been found in other types of marinades such as olives, garlic and tomato pesto. If the bacteria is allowed to grow it forms a nerve poison which can lead to death if not treated in time.

Incubation: a few hours to several days, the symptoms usually appear after 12-36 hours.

Symptoms: initial; nausea and vomiting, followed by neurological symptoms; weakness, double vision, difficulty speaking and swallowing.

Reason for outbreak: the bacteria is inhibited by acid, salt and low temperature. If you are careless with the amount of vinegar and salt and don’t store the food at low temperature, the bacteria grows and there is a risk that the food becomes toxic.

Prevention: follow the recipes carefully when pickling. Smoked fish should not be stored above +4 °C for more than three weeks.

 

 

 

 

Salmonella

Occurrence: animals, primarily poultry, pork, cattle and wild birds. Outbreaks caused by poultry, eggs, unpasteurized milk, pepper and sprouts.

Incubation period: 6-72hrs

Symptoms: acute symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, and headache. Can last for a few days and can lead to complications. 

Reason for outbreaks: ingestion of raw contaminated food, inadequate heating of foods that contain the salmonella bacteria.

Prevention: proper heating and preparation of food. Sprouts and other non-meat products shall be refrigerated, rinsed and consumed quickly. Avoid unpasteurized milk.

Listeria Monycytogenes

Occurrence: almost all raw food, has been found in milk and milk products, meat and meat products, vegetables, fish, shellfish and polluted water.

Incubation period: one day up to several weeks.

Symptoms:  Healthy people usually do not get sick but there are risk groups such as pregnant women, children and people with weak immune systems. Some suffer from flu-like symptoms and fetuses can become infected, which can cause a miscarriage. Others suffer from meningitis or brain inflammation. Approximately 60-90 people are infected per year in Sweden and this is increasing. The mortality is approx. 30 percent, but an infection leads to lifelong immunity.

Reason for outbreaks: can grow at refrigerator temperature, if stored longer the bacteria can multiply to dangerous levels. Is resistant to changes in its environment and can even grow in a vacuum.

Prevention: choose fresh foods, raw foods should be eaten as soon as possible and be prepared to an internal temperature of at least 70°C.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Listeria Monycytogenes

Occurrence: almost all raw food, has been found in milk and milk products, meat and meat products, vegetables, fish, shellfish and polluted water.

Incubation period: one day up to several weeks.

Symptoms:  Healthy people usually do not get sick but there are risk groups such as pregnant women, children and people with weak immune systems. Some suffer from flu-like symptoms and fetuses can become infected, which can cause a miscarriage. Others suffer from meningitis or brain inflammation. Approximately 60-90 people are infected per year in Sweden and this is increasing. The mortality is approx. 30 percent, but an infection leads to lifelong immunity.

Reason for outbreaks: can grow at refrigerator temperature, if stored longer the bacteria can multiply to dangerous levels. Is resistant to changes in its environment and can even grow in a vacuum.

Prevention: choose fresh foods, raw foods should be eaten as soon as possible and be prepared to an internal temperature of at least 70°C.

 

 

 

 

Enterohemorragisk E.coli (EHEC)

Occurrence: in the intestine of humans and warm-blooded animals. Infection by food, infected persons, water or contact with animals. Resistant to low pH.

Incubation time: 1-10 days.

Symptoms: stomach pain and diarrhea. For some, especially for children, the aftermath of HUS can destroy the kidneys and cause death.

Causes of outbreak: Insufficiently heated hamburgers, unpasteurized milk, juice, vegetables, cold smoked and fermented sausage etc.

Prevention: heat food properly, burgers should be cooked through, wash hands after contact with animals and do not drink unpasteurized milk.

Yersinia Enterocolitica

Occurrence: mainly in pigs but humans can also be carriers.

Incubation: 3-7 days.

Symptoms: abdominal pain, cramping, bloody diarrhea, vomiting and fever. Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis have occurred as a secondary disease.

Reason for outbreak: the most probable cause of outbreaks is food that is not heated correctly or raw, but contamination has occurred even after heating. The bacteria can survive in refrigerator temperatures and long expiration dates make this problem worse.

Prevention: heat the food properly, good hygiene, adequate fridge storage as well as fresh food.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yersinia Enterocolitica

Occurrence: mainly in pigs but humans can also be carriers.

Incubation: 3-7 days.

Symptoms: abdominal pain, cramping, bloody diarrhea, vomiting and fever. Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis have occurred as a secondary disease.

Reason for outbreak: the most probable cause of outbreaks is food that is not heated correctly or raw, but contamination has occurred even after heating. The bacteria can survive in refrigerator temperatures and long expiration dates make this problem worse.

Prevention: heat the food properly, good hygiene, adequate fridge storage as well as fresh food.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shigella

Occurrence: in humans and monkeys. Foods that has been found with the bacteria has been contaminated by dirty hands or waste water. Outbreaks are caused by salads, unpasteurized milk and contaminated drinking water.

Incubation: ½ day to a few days.

Symptoms: abdominal pain, cramping, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis as a secondary disease.

Causes of outbreaks: food contaminated with feces or sewage.

Prevention: good hand hygiene, watering crops with clean water.

Histamine

Occurrence: formed when bacteria grow on histidine-foods such as tuna and mackerel but also in aged cheese and wine.

Symptoms: burning sensation in the mouth, skin redness, itching, headaches, stomach pains, vomiting and diarrhea.

Reason for outbreaks: food has been contaminated by improper storage. Heat resistant even in oven temperatures.

Prevention: good hygiene, the right food at the right temperature. People sensitive to histamines should avoid strong cheese and possibly some wines.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Histamine

Occurrence: formed when bacteria grow on histidine-foods such as tuna and mackerel but also in aged cheese and wine.

Symptoms: burning sensation in the mouth, skin redness, itching, headaches, stomach pains, vomiting and diarrhea.

Reason for outbreaks: food has been contaminated by improper storage. Heat resistant even in oven temperatures.

Prevention: good hygiene, the right food at the right temperature. People sensitive to histamines should avoid strong cheese and possibly some wines.

 

 

 

 

Campylobacter

Occurrence: poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, water as well as dogs and cats.

Incubation: 1-10 days, usually 3-5 days.

Symptoms: everything from short-lived diarrhea to intestinal infection with cramps and diarrhea that may last for several weeks. Joint disorders might occur after infection.

Reason for outbreak: improperly heated raw foods. Cross contamination. Contamination of drinking water by sewage.

Prevention: proper heating, washing tools between different tasks. Washing hands after contact with animals.

Wastewater

Wastewater encompasses sewage from households, industries and leachate from landfills, cooling water and storm water. It contains lots of natural substances but in high concentrations that may cause eutrophication, oxygen deprivation and other negative effects on the eco-system. Unnatural substances that come from certain industries can interrupt the cleaning process in treatment plants which in itself is an environmental threat.

The counties have a clear responsibility to make sure that the requirements from the authorities are met. The requirements on industries upstream from treatment plants are therefore very strict. The analysis of their wastewater must always be done by accredited laboratories and the testing must be conducted by qualified technicians. Do you need help to test wastewater? Please contact miljoprov@nomor.se

Fat

For food industries it may be interesting to know the levels of fat in the wastewater since it may clog pipelines and pumps. Do you need help to test wastewater? Please contact miljoprov@nomor.se

Fat

For food industries it may be interesting to know the levels of fat in the wastewater since it may clog pipelines and pumps. Do you need help to test wastewater? Please contact miljoprov@nomor.se

BOD and COD

To get a hint of how easy the organic chemicals break down one can look at the ratio between the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). If the ratio is less than 0.4 it indicates that the water consists of substances that are difficult to break down.

Heavy Metals

There are certain maximum limits for the levels of heavy metals in waste water. The heavy metals affect the process in the treatment plants as well as the sludge the treatment plant produces. Do you need help to test wastewater? Please contact miljoprov@nomor.se