Occurrence: in humans and monkeys. Foods that has been found with the bacteria has been contaminated by dirty hands or waste water. Outbreaks are caused by salads, unpasteurized milk and contaminated drinking water.
Incubation: ½ day to a few days.
Symptoms: abdominal pain, cramping, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis as a secondary disease.
Causes of outbreaks: food contaminated with feces or sewage.
Prevention: good hand hygiene, watering crops with clean water.